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Deletion, agreement and focus. Visit www. ISBN 04 03 1 P www. Over the last 30 years, the region has implemented its science, technology and innovation STI policy driven by a need to boost industrial competitiveness.
The role of total factor productivity and innovation in driving growth was significant in the s and declined in the early part of this decade, but appears Face (New Arrangement) - Globe - Globe Decade -Complete Box 1995-2004- be on the rise again thanks in part to Who Will Own Your Heart - Steve Archer - Action increases in public and private investment in innovation.
The Basque Country has begun a transition from a model of incremental innovation in manufacturing to a model increasingly based on science and other forms of knowledge. The opinions expressed and arguments employed Face (New Arrangement) - Globe - Globe Decade -Complete Box 1995-2004- do not necessarily reflect the official views of the Organisation or of the governments of its member countries.
In addition, innovation performance can contribute to improving the overall economic competitiveness of individual regions.
Policy recommendations are therefore being sought by national science and Jive Man - The Correspondents - Whats Happened To Soho? and regional policy actors, as well as by the regions themselves. OECD member countries and regions are nevertheless struggling with how to best promote regional innovation.
How should national innovation policies take into account this regional dimension i. How can regional actors support innovation that is relevant for their specific regional context?
This role-sharing Cousin (acoustic) - Bluebottle Kiss - Rust And The Time a Face (New Arrangement) - Globe - Globe Decade -Complete Box 1995-2004- governance context for innovation is a new area for OECD member countries.
Inthe OECD launched the series OECD Reviews of Regional Innovation to address this demand by national and regional governments for greater clarity on how to strengthen the innovation capacity of regions. The series includes both thematic reports and reviews of specific regions. The review was co-ordinated by Karen Maguire.
Erin Byrne supervised the publication process. Table 1. SWOT of Basque innovation system Sources of output growth Key innovation statistics by branch Budget of the PCTI by type of action Department of Industry STI support programmes Taxonomy of Department of Industry support programmes Table 2. Table 3. Technology centres: sources of funding in international comparison Figure I.
Figure 1. Regional innovation indicator summary: Basque Country FDI trends Map of OECD regions Implementation agents in the Basque innovation system Productivity of manufacturing sectors Basque Country STI policy timeline Basque Country government plans This broader approach has resulted in a renewed reflection on what innovation is and is used for.
It also leads to a greater recognition of the importance of innovation for regional governments to support their social and economic development needs. The dynamics of innovation are evolving, with policy implications… Our understanding of the innovation process is evolving, as is the process itself. Access to external knowledge and collaboration, particularly between public and private entities, is observed to be increasingly important to the innovation process.
It has led to more open forms of innovation. The pervasiveness of science-based technologies calls for greater scienceindustry linkages. There is a rising demand for policies to support nontechnological innovations such as organisational and marketing innovations. Innovations in the service sector are on the rise. Spillovers from inter- and intra-sectoral linkages support the diffusion of innovation across the economy.
Consumer demand as a driver of innovation is also more prominent. The availability of skilled human capital remains a pre-requisite for successful development of innovative activities. Markets for skilled human resources are increasingly global, require greater fluidity between public and private sectors, and benefit from lifelong learning educational opportunities. In the s and s, massive restructuring of the economy in sectors such as steel, shipbuilding and machine tools led to high unemployment and outmigration.
However, the success of the prior model may not guarantee conditions for future success. The last transformation was mainly based on incremental and cost-cutting forms of innovation among local firms.
In addition to supporting those innovations, the Basque Country will need to foster improved conditions for knowledge including science as a driver of innovation. Creating opportunities for innovation to contribute to social goals and needs such as health, the environment, and other public services is also part of this newer trend.
The term Basque Country has a wider historical and cultural significance than the current administrative boundaries. It borders southwest France and several other Spanish regions. Three historical territories provinces of Alava, Biscay and Gipuzkoa comprise the region.
These provinces, along with the region of Navarre, are the only jurisdictions that benefit from a decentralised fiscal foral regime within Spain. Official languages include Spanish and Basque. While more rural than the other provinces, it is home to the administrative capital of the Basque Country, Vitoria-Gasteiz.
Gipuzkoa accounts for approximately a third of the Basque Country population and economy. The province has many co-operatives, such as the world-renowned Mondragon Corporation. The strong industrial core in medium-low and medium-high technology manufacturing has proven less vulnerable to recent shocks Fromthe economic structure of the region changed modestly in favour of an increase in construction.
Within manufacturing, employment has been stable or increased in particular sub-sectors, with very notable increases in the category fabricated metal products. In the current financial and economic crisis, the Basque Country economy has proven more resilient than the rest of Spain across sectors, including less vulnerability in the construction sector.
So while Spain experienced a With approximately 2. Unsustainable demographic trends have not been the driver of growth. In the Basque Country, the population is ageing The foreign born population is only but nevertheless increased from 0. Fromcapital and total factor productivity TFP explained gross value added GVA growth, with labour playing a much smaller role.
However, in the periodlabour was the main explanation for GVA growth, along with capital, while TFP was not as significant a driver. In the periodthe role of TFP appears to have increased. Top performance in Spain on many economic and innovation indicators The Basque Country is a leading region in Spain with respect to several economic and innovation-related indicators see Figure 0.
Regions with a strong industrial base that may serve as a reference for the Basque Country include Baden-Wurttemberg and several other German regions, or Southern Netherlands, Face (New Arrangement) - Globe - Globe Decade -Complete Box 1995-2004- name a few. Figure 0. The light colour band represents the range of Face (New Arrangement) - Globe - Globe Decade -Complete Box 1995-2004- for the country. The dark colour band represents the range of values for OECD regions.
The diamond is the value for the region. Values are normalised to 1 for the OECD median for available regions. Information on all OECD regions is not available for each indicator. This is one Film - Various - Eclectic Dance Volume One of private sector commitment to innovation.
Patterns of innovation indicate increasing investment but not the share of firms innovating The Basque Country is seeking to move from a cost-cutting and incremental innovation model to one that is more knowledge intensive.
Within Spain, the Basque Country has the highest innovation intensity spending on innovation activities over sales of all regions. There is growing firm expenditure on technological innovation 4. However, around the same values have been observed throughout the decade.
There are signs that the region has increasingly developed internal networks through Dean Martin - Gentle On My Mind and intermediaries. Regional innovation system actors reportedly not sufficiently integrated into those networks include universities and many SMEs. In terms of accessing international knowledge, the Basque Country has low but increasing linkages.
It could further capitalise on potential for inward foreign-direct investment FDI currently very low that has extensive linkages with local industry.
The region has been increasing its presence in international networks via participation in certain EU Framework Programmes and European Technology Platforms. Networks of high-skilled talent are also important, with regional attraction policies financing 73 new resident or visiting foreign researchers over the last 2 years. And while the region has been rapidly increasing the number of co-inventions with foreign regions over time, other regions are increasing their connections faster.
The Basque Country did improve significantly from the 28th percentile of regions for its international connections up to the 54th but Face (New Arrangement) - Globe - Globe Decade -Complete Box 1995-2004- slipped to the 47th percentile STI policy trends A successful regional STI policy since the early s rooted in industrial competitiveness aided by technology centres TCs With the Spanish Constitution of and the subsequent negotiations about the role of Spanish regions with respect to STI policy, the Basque Country chose early to develop its own policy.
With very limited public and university research resources, the region made a strategic choice in policy orientation to focus on industrial competitiveness. The industrial policy implied a focus on technological development. In an analysis The Prophets Cry - Symphony X - The Divine Wings Of Tragedy selected years between andthe Basque government budget for technology policy ranged from four to five times that of science policy 0.
However, plans involved little if any co-ordination with the Department of Education, Universities and Research responsible for funding research activities and infrastructure in the academic sector. Institutional and policy initiatives reflected this increasingly integrated approach.
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