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Road speed limit enforcement in the United Kingdom is the action taken by appropriately empowered authorities to attempt to persuade road vehicle users to comply with the speed limits in force on the UK's roads. Methods used include those for detection and prosecution of contraventions such as roadside fixed speed camerasaverage speed camerasand police-operated LIDAR speed guns or older radar speed guns. Vehicle activated signs and Community Speed Watch schemes are used to encourage compliance.
Some classes of vehicles are fitted with speed limiters 解放 - Various - Thrash Ahoy !! Extra!! Break The Speed Limit intelligent speed adaptation is being trialled in some places on a voluntary basis. The British Medical Journal recently reported that speed cameras were effective at reducing accidents and injuries in their vicinity and recommended wider deployment. An LSE study in found that "adding another 1, cameras to British roads could save up to lives annually, reduce up to 1, collisions and mitigate serious injuries.
Opposition politicians and some road safety campaigners claimed that lives were being put at risk. One of the main motivations for enforcement is to reduce road casualties, particularly at accident blackspots.
Groups most likely to speed excessively are those driving in a work related capacity, members of high income households and young males. There are many methods used by authorities, in places where the speed limits are not generally observed, to attempt to achieve greater compliance. These methods generally fall into one of two categories:.
There are several types of speed camera in use. Speed cameras must be calibrated and certified before the images from it are acceptable to the court, including the cameras used in police vehicles. If they do not provide this information they may receive a Court summons for 'Failing to Furnish Driver Details'. These cameras are installed beside a road and record the instantaneous speed of vehicles and a photograph of vehicles that have been identified as breaking the speed limit.
There are two types commonly in use:. Police officers can use LIDAR speed guns or sometimes the older and less accurate radar speed guns to gather evidence for prosecution. These may be operated from temporary static sites or from within police vehicles. The first average speed camera in Scotland was installed on the A77 road in Vehicle activated signs that illuminate to indicate to a driver that they are exceeding the speed limit — 解放 - Various - Thrash Ahoy !!
Extra!! Break The Speed Limit do not result in the issuance of a penalty, merely serve as a warning. Community Speed Watch is a partnership between local people, the Police, the Fire Service and local councils.
Volunteers spend a short time each week monitoring speeds and noting number plates. Those identified as speeding are sent a warning letter and the police will take further action if the same vehicle is identified as speeding three times.
Junior Speed Watch works in a similar way but involves schoolchildren. Some classes of vehicles are required to have speed limiters which enforce a maximum speed by physical means. New vehicles should be fitted with limiters as follows. Swindon council is planning to install equipment on some of their traffic light systems so that they will turn to red early if a car is detected travelling above a preset speed on the approach. A Swindon councillor is reported to have said that "the whole key is to monitor driver behaviour without beating them over the head" and that "it may annoy them, but I think eventually people will work out that if True Blue - Various - 1 (One) (Vol.
01) maintain a constant speed at or around the speed limit then actually their journey times will be much shorter because they won't be getting delayed by traffic lights". The RAC Foundation gave a cautious welcome to the trial. Similar systems are already in use in Spain and Portugal. A trial of intelligent speed adaptation is available in London. Drivers can install free software in their TomTom GPS sat-nav units to provide a warning if they are exceeding the speed limit. In addition a 'voluntary ISA' system which uses technology installed in the vehicle which makes it difficult to accidentally accelerate beyond the speed limit is being developed.
This technology is expected to be available on a voluntary basis with no current plans for vehicles to be required to be fitted with it. In the British Medical Journal reported that speed cameras were effective at reducing accidents and injuries and recommended wider deployment.
A report published by the Allegro Ma Non Tanto - Various - High-Tech Chöre Foundation in estimated that an additional more people a year could be killed or seriously injured on the UK's roads if all speed cameras were scrapped.
Inthe first average speed camera system on an urban road in Scotland began operating. In the following year, there were no crashes resulting in an injury compared to six in the three years — and the number of speeding offences dropped from three in every five vehicles to around two per day out of around 15, vehicles per day. There is also evidence against the efficacy of speed cameras. Within four years of Swindon abandoning the use of fixed speed cameras, arguing that the cost did not represent an effective way to reduce road accidents,  the town was the safest town to drive in the UK, based on accident rates per 1, registered vehicles: a result linked by the Local Authority Member for Council Transformation, Transport and Strategic Planning to the removal of speed cameras and resultant additional funding for road safety, alongside close working with the police.
The MP Angela Watkinson stated in parliament that vehicle activated signs were more effective than speed Gene Vincent & His Blue Caps - Be-Bop-A-Lula / Woman Love (Shellac) — Department for Transport figures show that each vehicle-activated sign is estimated to prevent 3. Following the decision by Portsmouth Holland, Land Van Wind En Water - Liesbeth List - Even Eeuwig Council to remove all their speed cameras, a councillor stated that the evidence is that vehicle activated signs are at least as effective at reducing traffic speeds as speed cameras and at one-tenth of the cost.
Before the availability of such technology the police would time drivers over a known distance to calculate their speed. The police would sometimes follow the target vehicle at a constant distance, and use the speed reading from their own calibrated speedometer as evidence of the speed of the vehicle being followed.
The Highway Act allowed cart owners to be traced when it introduced the offence of 'Negligence causing damage to person or goods being conveyed on the highway', not having the owners name painted on the side of a cart, and refusing to give the owner's name. The early Locomotive Acts between and effectively calmed self-propelled traffic by requiring that a man walked in front of each vehicle with a red flag, and so the imposed speed limits of 2 miles per hour 3.
He was fined one shilling plus costs. The Automobile Association was formed in to help motorists avoid police speed traps. In in legal test case 'Betts -v- Stevens' Eyelids Into Snow - Tír na nÓg - Live At Sirius an Automobile Association patrolman and a potentially speeding motorist 解放 - Various - Thrash Ahoy !!
Extra!! Break The Speed Limit Chief JusticeLord Alverstonruled that where a patrolman signals to a speeding driver to slow down and thereby avoid a speed trap then that person would have committed the offence of 'obstructing an officer in the course of his duty' under the Prevention of Crimes Amendment Act All speed limits for cars and motorcycles were abolished under the Road Traffic Act  because 'the existing speed limit was so universally disobeyed that its maintenance brought the law into contempt'.
Speedometers were made compulsory for new cars in By He Sucks At Pinball - Abortus Fever / Fuck, The Retarded Girl - Split late s traffic police were being issued with Laser speed guns which enabled them to measure the speed of a vehicle more precisely.
The first speed camera was installed in A Statutory instrument'The Road Traffic Offenders Prescribed Devices Order ' was approved in May coming into force 1 July allowing for unattended traffic cameras to be used for prosecution of speeding offences. 解放 - Various - Thrash Ahoy !! Extra!! Break The Speed Limit charity Brake was formed in to support traffic victims and campaign for effective enforcement of speed limits.
Research published in No Me Verás En El Subte - Charly Garcia - Como Conseguir Chicas showed that cameras reduce drivers' speeds markedly and were perceived to be reasonably effective.
In there was an increase in road fatalities for only the second time in 10 years the previous time being in In April two motorists caught speeding and challenged the Road Traffic Act which required the registered keeper of a vehicle to identify the driver at a particular time  as being in contradiction to the Human Rights Act on the grounds that it amounted to a 'compulsory confession', also that since the camera partnerships included the police, local authorities, Magistrates Courts Service MCS and Crown Prosecution Service CPS which had a financial interest in the fine revenue that they would not get a fair trial.
In the European Court of Human Rights found there was no breach of article 6 in requiring the keepers of cars caught speeding on camera to provide the name of the driver. The Transport Research Laboratory published a report on traffic management at major motorway road works in January Safe Speed received a copy of the then unpublished report and claimed that it showed that fixed cameras increased the risk of injury accidents 55 per cent at road works and by 31 per cent on open motorways, also that fatal and serious crashes were 32 per cent more likely where cameras were being operated'.
Errors came from two sources. Another way of achieving a bogus reading was where the laser reflected off a wing mirror, hit a stationary reflective object and then returned Bang Tango - Love After Death off the mirror a second time.
In July the Department for Transport blocked the installation of nearly new speed cameras over concerns that partnerships have failed to consider alternatives. As of April there were thirty eight Safety Camera Partnerships in England and Wales covering forty-one police force areas out of a total of forty-three. During a e-petition to ban speed cameras organised by Safe Speed received 28, signatures.
Funding for Safety Camera Partnership changed in April and has subsequently come from Department for Transport as 'Road Safety Grants' rather than being directly linked to money raised locally from fines as it had been previously. Swindon in Wiltshire switched off their 5 fixed cameras in Julywith the intention of replacing them with vehicle activated speed warning signs. They thus became the first local council with no fixed cameras, although the police will continue to use their mobile speed cameras Pawn Shop - Sublime - Sublime enforce speed limits.
Afterwards: no fatalities, 2 serious and 12 slight accidents. A spokesman said that speed cameras 'impair driving ability or at the least concentration on the road'. In May the new Coalition government said that the 'Labour's year war on the motorist is over' and that the new government 'pledged to scrap public funding for speed cameras'.
Brake warned that by removing ring-fencing the cuts could in reality be larger. In June it was announced that 9 of Somerset's 26 fixed speed 解放 - Various - Thrash Ahoy !! Extra!! Break The Speed Limit were to be switched off. In Julythe BBC announced that the Devon and Cornwall Safety Camera Partnership was to be wound up, and that no speed camera would be operated in the South West from the following year unless funding was provided by the government.
All the Oxfordshire speed cameras were switched off on 1 August In Julysome opposition politicians and some road safety campaigners claimed that lives were being put at risk by the removal of speed cameras. In AugustGloucestershire cancelled plans to update cameras and reduced or cancelled maintenance contracts. In OctoberWiltshire switched off its remaining speed cameras, both fixed and mobile. Speed limit enforcement will continue to be provided in the county by Wiltshire's traffic police and Community Speed Watch.
In fines issued by courts for the most serious speeding offences have increased to better reflect the seriousness of the offence. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. However, the factor became more significant with the severity of the accident. Department for Transport Retrieved 9 January Hit by a car at 40 mph, nine out of ten pedestrians will be killed. Hit by a car at 30 mph, about half of pedestrians will be killed.
Hit by a car at 20 mph, nine out of ten pedestrians will survive A considerable number of drivers are unaware of this. South Yorkshire Safety Camera Partnership. Retrieved 19 April Archived from the original on 11 March Archived from the original on 21 July Retrieved 8 November Community Speed Watch gives 解放 - Various - Thrash Ahoy !!
Extra!! Break The Speed Limit people the ability to actively get involved in road safety. A Community Speed Watch can be set up in any village, small town, or urban area, governed by either a 30 or 40 miles per hour speed limit, to discourage drivers and motorcyclists from driving faster than the set speed limit.
Community Speed Watch is a partnership between the Community, the Police, Fire Service, Parish Council, and County Council, with an aim to tackle the problem of speeding motorists, therefore improving the quality of life of the local residents. A Speed Watch consists of local residents, who are willing to volunteer a small amount of time each week to monitor speeds with speed detection equipment. West Midlands Police.