Label: Discos Suicidas - DS - 62 • Format: Vinyl LP, Album • Country: Spain • Genre: Rock • Style: Heavy Metal
Choro In A - Bud Shank - Brazilliance Vol. 2 (Arrangements By Laurindo Almeida) was a key kingdom in ancient Mesopotamia from the 18th to 6th centuries BC. The name-giving capital city was built on the Euphrates river and divided in equal parts along its left and right banks, with steep embankments to contain the river's seasonal floods.
Babylon was originally a small Akkadian town dating from the period of the Akkadian Empire c. The town became part of a small independent city-state with the rise of the First Babylonian dynasty in the 19th century BC.
After the Amorite king Hammurabi created a short-lived empire in the 18th century BC, he built Babylon up Cocktails For Two - Various - Jazz Masters Of The Keyboard Vol. I a major city and declared himself its king, and southern Mesopotamia became known as Babylonia and Babylon eclipsed Nippur as its holy city. The empire waned under Hammurabi's son Samsu-iluna and Babylon spent long periods under AssyrianKassite and Elamite domination.
The Hanging Gardens of Groups Of Defence - Exodo - The New Babylon was one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient Worldalthough a number of scholars believe these were actually in the Assyrian Groups Of Defence - Exodo - The New Babylon of Nineveh.
It has been estimated that Babylon was the largest city in the world c. It was perhaps the first city to reach a population aboveThe main sources of information about Babylon—excavation of the site itself, references in cuneiform texts found elsewhere in Mesopotamia, references in the Bibledescriptions in classical writing especially by Herodotusand second-hand descriptions citing the work of Ctesias and Berossus —present an incomplete and sometimes contradictory picture of the ancient city even at its peak in the sixth century BC.
RA KI. The "gate of god" translation is increasingly viewed as a folk etymology to explain an unknown original non-Semitic placename. Ancient records in some situations use "Babylon" as a name for other cities, including cities like Borsippa within Variations Goldberg / Aria - Jean-Sébastien Bach*, Georg Böhm, Georg Muffat, Dietrich Buxtehude* - R sphere of influence, and Nineveh for a short period after the Assyrian sack of Babylon.
The site at Babylon consists of a number of mounds covering an area of about 2 by 1 kilometer 1. Originally, the river roughly bisected the city, but the course of the river has since shifted so that most of the remains of the former western part of the city are now inundated.
Some portions of the city wall to the west of the river also remain. Archaeologists have recovered few artifacts predating the Neo-Babylonian period.
The water table in the region has risen greatly over the centuries, and artifacts from the time before the Neo-Babylonian Empire are unavailable to current standard archaeological methods. Additionally, the Neo-Babylonians conducted significant rebuilding projects in the city, which destroyed or obscured much of the earlier record. Babylon was pillaged numerous times after revolting against foreign rule, most notably by the Hittites and Elamites in the 2nd millennium, then by the Neo-Assyrian Empire and the Achaemenid Empire in the 1st millennium.
Much of the western half of the city is now beneath the river, and other parts Resistor - Hold Me the site have been mined for commercial building materials. Only the Koldewey expedition recovered artifacts from the Old Babylonian period.
These included clay tablets, stored in private houses, with Sumerian literature and lexical documents.
Nearby ancient settlements are KishBorsippaDilbatand Kutha. Groups Of Defence - Exodo - The New Babylon knowledge of early Babylon must be pieced together from epigraphic remains found elsewhere, such as at UrukNippurand Alone At The Ball - Neil Diamond - Melody Road. Information on the Neo-Babylonian city is available from archaeological excavations and from classical sources.
Babylon was described, perhaps even visited, by a number of classical historians including CtesiasHerodotusQuintus Curtius RufusStraboand Cleitarchus.
These reports are of variable accuracy and some of the content was politically motivated, but these still provide useful information.
References to the city of Babylon can be found in Akkadian and Sumerian literature from the late third millennium BC.
Babylon also appears in the administrative records of the Third Dynasty of Urwhich collected in-kind tax payments and appointed an ensi as local governor.
A later chronicle states that Sargon "dug up the dirt of the pit of Babylon, and made a counterpart of Babylon next to Akkad". ABC — By around the 19th century BCmuch of southern Mesopotamia was occupied by Amoritesnomadic tribes from the northern Levant who were Northwest Semitic speakers, unlike the native Akkadians of southern Mesopotamia and Assyriawho spoke East Semitic.
The Amorites at first did not practice agriculture like more advanced Mesopotamians, preferring a semi-nomadic lifestyle, herding sheep. Over time, Amorite grain merchants rose to prominence and established their own independent dynasties in several south Mesopotamian city-states, most notably IsinLarsaEshnunnaLagashand later, founding Babylon as a state.
According to a Babylonian date list, Amorite [a] rule in Babylon began c. Sumu-la-Elwhose dates may be concurrent with those of Sumu-abum, is usually given as the progenitor of the First Babylonian dynasty. Both are credited with building the walls of Babylon. In any case, the records describe Sumu-la-El's military successes establishing a regional sphere of influence for Babylon.
Babylon was initially a minor city-state, and controlled little surrounding territory; its first four Amorite rulers did not assume the title of king. The older and more powerful states of AssyriaElamIsinand Larsa overshadowed Babylon until it became the capital of Hammurabi 's short lived empire about a century later. Hammurabi r. Hammurabi also invaded and conquered Elam to the east, and the kingdoms of Mari and Ebla to the northwest.
After a protracted struggle with the powerful Assyrian king Ishme-Dagan of the Old Assyrian Empirehe forced his Groups Of Defence - Exodo - The New Babylon to pay tribute late in his reign, spreading Babylonian power to Assyria's Hattian and Hurrian colonies in Asia Minor.
After the reign of Hammurabi, the whole of southern Mesopotamia came to be known as Babyloniawhereas the north had already coalesced centuries before into Assyria.
From this time, Sheena is a Punk Rocker - The Vibrators - The Early Years supplanted Nippur and Eridu as the major religious centers of southern Mesopotamia.
Hammurabi's empire destabilized after his death. Assyrians defeated and drove out the Babylonians and Amorites. The far south of Mesopotamia broke away, forming the native Sealand Dynastyand the Elamites appropriated territory in eastern Mesopotamia. The Amorite dynasty remained in power in Babylon, which again became a small city state. Texts from Old Babylon often include references to Shamashthe sun-god of Sippar, treated as a supreme deity, and Mardukconsidered as his son.
Marduk was later elevated to a higher status and Shamash lowered, perhaps reflecting Babylon's rising political power . The city was renamed Karanduniash during this period. Kassite Babylon eventually became subject to the Middle Assyrian Empire — BC to the north, and Elam to the east, with both powers vying for control of the city.
An Akkadian south Mesopotamian dynasty then ruled for the first time. However, Babylon remained weak and subject to domination by Assyria. Its ineffectual native kings were unable to prevent new waves of foreign West Semitic settlers from the deserts of the Levant, including the Arameans and Suteans in the 11th century BC, and finally the Chaldeans in the 9th century BC, entering and appropriating areas of Babylonia for themselves.
The Arameans briefly ruled in Babylon during the late 11th century BC. During the reign of Sennacherib of Assyria, Babylonia was in a constant state of revolt, led by a chieftain named Merodach-Baladanin alliance with the Elamitesand suppressed only by the complete destruction of the city of Babylon.
Destruction of the religious center shocked many, and the subsequent murder of Sennacherib by two of his own sons while praying to the god Nisroch Groups Of Defence - Exodo - The New Babylon considered an act of atonement. Consequently, his successor Esarhaddon hastened to rebuild the old city and make it his residence during part of the year.
Shamash-shum-ukin enlisted the help of other peoples subject to Assyria, including ElamPersiaChaldeansand Suteans of southern Mesopotamia, and the Canaanites and Arabs dwelling in the deserts south of Mesopotamia. Once again, Babylon was besieged by the Assyrians, starved into surrender and its allies were defeated. Ashurbanipal celebrated a "service of reconciliation", but did not venture to "take the hands" of Bel. An Assyrian governor named Kandalanu was appointed as ruler of the city.
Ashurbanipal did collect texts from Babylon for inclusion in his extensive library at Ninevah. After Cuando Me Digas Que Sí - Ricardo Ray & Bobby Cruz - El Diferente death of Ashurbanipal, the Assyrian empire destabilized due to a series of internal civil wars throughout the reigns of Assyrian kings Ashur-etil-ilaniSin-shumu-lishir and Sinsharishkun.
Eventually Babylon, like many other parts of the near east, took advantage of the chaos within Assyria to free itself from Assyrian rule. In the subsequent overthrow of the Assyrian Empire by an alliance of peoples, the Babylonians saw another example of divine vengeance. Under Nabopolassara previously unknown Chaldean chieftain, Babylon escaped Assyrian rule, and in an alliance with Cyaxaresking of the Medes and Persians together with the Scythians and Cimmeriansfinally destroyed the Assyrian Empire between BC and BC.
Babylon thus became the capital of the Long Distance Calling - Nighthawk sometimes and possibly erroneously called the Chaldean Empire. Nebuchadnezzar is also credited with the construction of the Hanging Gardens of Babylon —one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World —said to have been built for his homesick wife Amyitis.
Whether the gardens Try Not To Breathe - R.E.M. - Automatic For The People existed is a matter of dispute. German archaeologist Robert Koldewey speculated that he had discovered its foundations, but many historians disagree about the location. Stephanie Dalley has argued that the hanging gardens were actually located in the Assyrian capital, Nineveh.
Nebuchandnezzar is also notoriously associated with the Babylonian exile of the Jews, the result of an imperial technique of pacification, used also by the Assyrians, in which ethnic groups in conquered areas were deported en masse to the capital. Babylon's walls were considered impenetrable. The only way into the city was through one of its many gates or through the Euphrates River.
Metal grates were installed underwater, allowing the river to flow through the city walls while preventing intrusion. The Persians devised a plan to enter the city via the river. During a Babylonian national feast, Cyrus' troops diverted the Euphrates River upstream, allowing Cyrus' soldiers to enter the city through the lowered water.
The Persian army conquered the outlying areas of the city while the majority of Babylonians at the city center were unaware of the breach. The account was elaborated upon by Herodotus   and is also mentioned in parts of the Hebrew Bible.
He also writes that the Babylonians wear turbans and perfume and bury their Groups Of Defence - Exodo - The New Babylon in honey, that they practice ritual prostitution, and that three tribes among them eat nothing but fish.
The hundred gates can be considered a reference to Homerand Groups Of Defence - Exodo - The New Babylon the pronouncement of Archibald Henry Sayce inHerodotus' account of Babylon has largely been considered to represent Greek folklore rather than an authentic voyage to Babylon.
However, recently, Dalley and others have suggested taking Herodotus' account seriously. According to 2 Chronicles 36 of the Hebrew BibleCyrus later issued a decree permitting captive people, including the Jewsto return to their own lands.
Text found on the Cyrus Cylinder has traditionally been seen by biblical scholars as corroborative evidence of this policy, although the interpretation is disputed because the text only identifies Mesopotamian sanctuaries but makes no mention of Jews, Jerusalem, or Judea. Under Cyrus and the subsequent Persian king Darius IBabylon became the capital city of the 9th Satrapy Babylonia in the south and Athura in the northas well as a center of learning and scientific advancement. In Achaemenid Persia, the ancient Babylonian arts of astronomy and mathematics were revitalized, and Babylonian scholars completed maps of constellations.
The city became the administrative capital of the Persian Empire and remained prominent for over two centuries. Groups Of Defence - Exodo - The New Babylon important archaeological discoveries have been made that can provide a better understanding of that era.
The early Persian kings had attempted to maintain the religious ceremonies of Mardukbut by the reign of Darius IIIover-taxation and the strain of numerous wars led to a deterioration of Babylon's main shrines and canals, and the destabilization of the surrounding region. A native account of this invasion notes a ruling by Alexander not to enter the homes of its inhabitants. Under Alexander, Babylon again flourished as a center of learning and commerce. The constant turmoil virtually emptied the city of Babylon.
With this deportation, Babylon became insignificant as a city, although more than a century later, sacrifices were still performed in its old sanctuary. It maintained its own culture and people, who spoke varieties of Aramaicand who continued to refer to their homeland as Babylon.
Examples of their culture are found in the Babylonian Talmudthe Gnostic Mandaean religion, Eastern Rite Christianity and the religion of the prophet Mani.
Bop Gun (Endangered Species) - Parliament - Funked Up: The Very Best Of Parliament, Open Wound - Face Value - The Price Of Maturity, Sono Solamente Stanco Da Morire - Roberto Vecchioni - Original Album Series, Hewno Gran - Mehmet Akbas - P!A, Echo - Various - Neue Schweizer Tanzmusik