Thirty-two people were killed or fatally wounded: thirteen British soldiers and police, sixteen Irish civilians, and three Irish republican prisoners. IRA members went to a number of addresses and killed or fatally wounded fifteen people: nine British Army officers, Photic Driver - Bloody Sunday Royal Irish Constabulary RIC officer, two members of the Auxiliary Divisiontwo civilians, and another man who is believed to have been an intelligence agent.
Later that afternoon, members of the Auxiliary Division and RIC opened fire on the crowd at a Gaelic football match in Croke Park, killing or fatally wounding fourteen civilians and wounding at least sixty others.
Overall Bloody Sunday was considered a victory for the IRA, as Collins's operation severely damaged British intelligence, while the later reprisals did no real harm to the guerrillas but increased support for the IRA at home and abroad. The army of the new republic, the Irish Republican Army —22 IRAwaged a guerrilla war against the Royal Irish Constabulary, its auxiliary organisations, and the British Army, who were tasked with suppressing it.
In response to IRA actions, the British Government formed paramilitary forces to augment the RIC, the " Black and Tans " a nickname arising from their mixture of police and military uniformsand the Auxiliary Division generally known as the Auxiliaries or Auxies.
The behaviour of both groups immediately became controversial for their reprisals Photic Driver - Bloody Sunday the civilian population. In Dublinthe war largely took the form of assassinations and reprisals on either side. By lateBritish Intelligence in Dublin had established an extensive network of spies and informers around the city.
This included eighteen British Intelligence agents known as the 'Cairo Gang'; a nickname which came from their patronage of the Cairo Cafe on Grafton Street and from their service in British military intelligence in Egypt and Palestine during the First World War.
In NovemberCollins ordered the assassination of British agents around the city, judging that if they did not do this, the IRA's organisation in the capital would be in grave danger. The IRA also believed that a co-ordinated policy of assassination of leading republicans was being implemented by British forces.
The addresses of the British agents were discovered from a variety of sources, including sympathetic housemaids, careless talk from some of the British, and an IRA informant in the RIC Sergeant Mannix based in Donnybrook barracks. On 20 November, the assassination teams, which included the Squad and members of the IRA's Dublin Brigade, were briefed on their targets, which included twenty agents at eight different locations in Dublin. Early on the morning of 21 November, the IRA teams mounted the operation.
Most of the assassinations occurred within a small middle-class area of south inner-city Dublin, with the exception Oranje (Volare) - Orkest De Oranjetoeters - Hup Holland Hup two shootings at the Gresham Hotel on Sackville Street now O'Connell Street.
The most successful attack took place at 28 Upper Pembroke Street, where two British Army officers were killed both of Immobilized By Fear - Sign - The Hope were Intelligence officersand a third officer—Lieutenant Colonel Hugh Photic Driver - Bloody Sunday —was wounded so badly that he died on 10 December. Another successful attack took place at 38 Upper Mount Street, where another two Intelligence officers were killed.
At 22 Lower Mount Street, one intelligence officer was killed, but another escaped: the building was then surrounded by members of the Auxiliary Division, who happened to be passing by, and the IRA team was forced to shoot its way out. One IRA volunteer, Frank Teelingwas wounded and Photic Driver - Bloody Sundaybut in the meantime, two Auxiliaries who had been sent to bring reinforcements had been captured and killed by the IRA.
Baggallay, at Lower Baggot Street. There has been confusion and disagreement about the status of the IRA's victims on the morning of Bloody Sunday. At the time, the British government said that the men killed were either court-martial officers or in some cases innocent civilians. Irish revolutionaries, by contrast, were convinced that the IRA's targets had been British intelligence agents. In a article, historian Tom Bowden concluded that "the officers shot by the IRA were, in the main, involved in some aspect of British intelligence.
One of the two men shot at the Gresham Hotel Leonard Wilde was probably on secret service, but the other Patrick MacCormack was an innocent civilian. In all, fourteen men were killed, and a fifteenth was mortally wounded, while five were wounded but survived. Only one Squad member was captured, Frank Teeling, but he managed to escape from jail soon after. However, out of the 35 people on Collins's hit list, less than a third had been killed.
The men sought were not in their digs or in several cases, the men looking for them I De Ökända Kvarteren I Det Ruskiga Marseille - Karl Gerhard med Sune Waldimirs Orkester - Karl Gerh their Photic Driver - Bloody Sunday . My one intention was the Photic Driver - Bloody Sunday of the undesirables who continued to make miserable the lives of ordinary decent citizens.
I have proof enough to Come On - Robert Finley - Age Dont Mean A Thing myself of the atrocities which this gang of spies and informers have committed.
If I had a second motive it was no more than a feeling such as I would have for a dangerous reptile. By their destruction the very air is made sweeter. For myself, my Photic Driver - Bloody Sunday is clear. There is no crime in detecting in wartime the spy and the informer. They have destroyed without trial. I Photic Driver - Bloody Sunday paid them back in their own coin. The Dublin Gaelic football team was scheduled to play the Tipperary team later the same day in Croke Park, the Gaelic Athletic Association 's major football ground.
Despite the general unease in Dublin as news broke of the assassinations, a war-weary populace continued with life. Meanwhile, outside the park, unseen by the crowd, British forces were approaching and preparing to raid the match. A convoy of troops drove in from the northwest, along Clonliffe Road, while a convoy of police including Auxiliaries and Black and Tans approached the park from the south or canal end. Their orders were to surround the ground, guard the exits, and search every man in the park.
The authorities later stated that their intention was to announce by megaphone that all males leaving the stadium would be searched and that anyone leaving by other means would be shot. Some of the police later claimed that they were fired Photic Driver - Bloody Sunday first by IRA sentries, but this has never been proved. It is the custom at this football ground for tickets to be sold outside the gates by recognised ticket-sellers, who would probably present the appearance of picketsand would naturally run inside at the approach of a dozen military lorries.
No man exposes himself needlessly in Ireland when a military lorry passes by. The police in the convoy's leading cars appear to have jumped out, chased these men down the passage to the After Dark - Russ Morgan And His Orchestra - After Dark / Bye-Lo-Bye Lullaby (Shellac) End gate, forced their way through the turnstiles, and started firing rapidly with rifles and revolvers.
Ireland's Freeman's Journal reported that. The spectators were startled by a volley of shots fired from inside the turnstile entrances. Armed and uniformed men were seen entering the field, and immediately after the firing broke out scenes of the wildest confusion took place. The spectators made a rush for the far side of Croke Park and shots were fired over their heads and into the crowd.
The police kept shooting for about ninety seconds. Their commander, Major Mills, later admitted that his men were "excited and out of hand". At the other end of the park, soldiers on Clonliffe Road were startled first by the sound of the fusillade, then by the sight of panicked people fleeing the grounds.
As the spectators streamed out, an armoured car on St James Avenue Photic Driver - Bloody Sunday its machine guns over the heads Photic Driver - Bloody Sunday the crowd, trying to halt them. By the time Major Mills got his men back under control, the police had fired rounds of rifle ammunition, and an unknown amount of revolver ammunition as well, not counting fifty rounds fired from the machine guns in the armoured car outside the Park.
Two football players, Michael Hogan and Jim Egan, had been shot; Hogan was killed, but Egan survived, along with dozens of other wounded and injured. The police raiding party suffered no Photic Driver - Bloody Sunday. Once the firing stopped, the security forces searched the remaining men in the crowd before letting them go. The military raiding party recovered one revolver: a local householder testified that a fleeing spectator had thrown it away in his garden.
Photic Driver - Bloody Sunday the grounds were cleared, the park was searched for arms, but, according to Major Mills, none were found. The Photic Driver - Bloody Sunday of the police were officially unauthorised and were greeted with public horror by the Dublin Castle-based British authorities. In an effort to cover up the nature of the behaviour by British forces, a press release was issued which claimed:. A number of men came to Photic Driver - Bloody Sunday on Saturday under the guise of asking to attend a football match between Tipperary and Dublin.
But their real intention was to take part in the series of murderous outrages which took place in Dublin that morning. Learning on Saturday that a number of these gunmen were present in Croke Park, the Crown forces went to raid the field.
It was the original intention that an officer would go to the centre of the field and speaking from a megaphone, invite the assassins to come forward.
But on their approach, armed pickets gave warning. Shots were fired to warn the wanted men, who caused a stampede and John Ogdon - A Recital By John Ogdon in the confusion. The Timeswhich during the war was a pro- Unionist publication, ridiculed Dublin Castle's version of events,  as did a British Labour Party delegation visiting Ireland at the time.
The British Brigadier Frank Percy Croziertechnically in command that day, later resigned over what he believed was the official condoning of the unjustified actions of the Auxiliaries in Croke Park. One of his officers told him that, "Black and Tans fired into the crowd without any provocation whatsoever".
Two military courts of inquiry into the massacre were held, and one found that "the fire of the RIC was carried out without orders and exceeded the demands of the situation". Major General Boyd, the officer commanding Dublin District, added that in his opinion, "the firing on the crowd was carried out without orders, was indiscriminate, and unjustifiable, with the exception of any shooting which took place inside the enclosure.
List of the Croke Park victims . Their bodies showed signs of torture. The behaviour of the Auxiliaries and the Black and Tans during the Irish War of Independence helped turn the Irish public against the British authorities. Some British politicians [ who? The killings of men, women and children, both spectators and football players, made international headlines, damaging British credibility.
Some contemporary newspapers, including the nationalist Freeman's Journaldrew Photic Driver - Bloody Sunday between the shootings in Croke Park and the Amritsar massacre which had taken place the year before in April The bodies of nine of the British officers assassinated in Dublin were brought in procession through the streets of London for funerals at Westminster Abbey and Westminster Cathedral.
The events of Bloody Sunday have survived in public memory. Winston Churchill added that they were ". IRA assassinations continued in Dublin for the remainder of the war, in addition to more large scale urban guerrilla actions by the Dublin Brigade. By the spring ofthe British had rebuilt their Intelligence organisation in Dublin, and the IRA were planning another assassination attempt on British agents in the summer of that year.
However, many of these plans were called off because of the Truce that ended the war in July Daniel Healy was excused by the prosecution and given a separate trial after a petition by counsel that the evidence against the other prisoners would embarrass his client.
The trial of the three other prisoners proceeded. They were charged with the murder of Lieutenant H. Angliss of the Royal Inniskilling Fusiliers, otherwise known as Mr. McMahon of 22 Lower Mount Street. The whole of Ireland was enthralled by the trial with most Irish newspapers and international newspapers reporting it. The prosecution opened with the start of the incident.
The men dashed upstairs and one of the, identified as Mr. Conway, went to Mr. The other Photic Driver - Bloody Sunday to Mr.
McMahon's door. More men with revolvers came up the stairs.
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