Label: Troubadour Records - CJ.70016 • Format: Vinyl LP • Country: Australia • Genre: Folk, World, & Country • Style: Aboriginal, Gospel
The time of arrival of the first peoples on the continent and nearby islands is a matter of debate among researchers. Other estimates have ranged up toyears  andyears BP. Although there are a number of commonalities between Aboriginal Australians, there is also a great diversity among different communities and societies in Australia, each with its own mixture of cultures, customs and languages. In present-day Australia these groups are further divided into local communities.
The population of Indigenous Australians at the time of permanent European settlement is contentious and has been estimated at between and 1,  with the distribution being similar to that of the current Australian population, the majority living in the south-east, centred along the Murray River.
Massacres and war by British settlers also contributed to depopulation. The word aboriginal has been in the English language since at least the 16th century to mean, "first or earliest known, indigenous". It comes from the Latin word aboriginesderived from ab from and origo origin, beginning. It soon became capitalised and employed as the common name to refer to all Indigenous Australians. While the term "Indigenous Australians" has grown since the s  to include Torres Strait Islander people, many Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples dislike it, feeling that it is too generic and removes their identity.
Being more specific, for example naming the language group, is considered best practice and most respectful. The broad term Aboriginal Australians includes many regional groups that often identify under names from local Indigenous languages. These include:.
These larger groups may be further subdivided; for example, Anangu meaning a person from Australia's central desert region recognises localised subdivisions such as PitjantjatjaraYankunytjatjaraNgaanyatjarraLuritja and Antikirinya. It is estimated that before the arrival of British settlers, the population of Aboriginal Australians was approximately ,—, across the continent. The Torres Strait Islanders possess a heritage and cultural history distinct from Aboriginal traditions.
This has been another factor in the promotion of the more inclusive term "Indigenous Australians". The Torres Strait Islands comprise over islands  which were annexed by Queensland in The term "black" has been used to refer to Indigenous Australians since European settlement. In the s, many Aboriginal activists, such as Gary Foleyproudly embraced the term "black", and writer Kevin Gilbert 's book from the time Connie Lou - Various - Rockabilly Fever entitled Living Black.
The book included interviews with several members of the Aboriginal community, including Robert Jabanunggareflecting on contemporary Aboriginal culture. A less formal term, used by Indigenous Australians and not normally derogatory, is " blackfellas ", as distinguished from "whitefellas".
Several settlements of humans in Australia have been dated around 49, years ago. The earliest anatomically modern human remains found in Australia and outside of Africa are those of Mungo Man ; they have been dated at 42, years old.
It is generally believed that Aboriginal people are the descendants of a single migration into the continent, a people that split from the first modern human populations to leave Africa 64, to 75, years ago, Preliminary Initiation Ceremony - Australian Aborigines - Music Of A People: Aboriginal Music Old An although others support an earlier theory that there were three waves of migration,  most likely island hopping by boat during periods of low sea levels see Prehistory of Australia.
Recent work with mitochondrial DNA suggests a founder population of between 1, and 3, women to produce the genetic diversity observed, which suggests "that initial colonisation of the continent would have required deliberate organised sea travel, involving hundreds of people". Genetically, while Indigenous Australians are most closely related to Melanesian and Papuan people, there is also a Eurasian component that could indicate South Asian admixture or more recent European influence.
The research also suggests a divergence from the Papuan people of New Guinea and Mamanwa people of the Philippines about 32, years ago with a rapid population expansion about 5, years ago.
Aboriginal people mainly lived as foragers and hunter-gatherershunting and foraging for food from the land. Although Aboriginal society was generally mobile, or semi-nomadicmoving according to the changing food Preliminary Initiation Ceremony - Australian Aborigines - Music Of A People: Aboriginal Music Old An found across different areas as seasons changed, the mode of life and material cultures varied greatly from region to region, and there were permanent settlements  and agriculture  in some areas.
The greatest population density was to be found in the southern and eastern regions of the continent, the River Murray valley in particular. There is some evidence that, before outside contact, some groups of Indigenous Australians had Anthony B - Hot Too complex subsistence system with elements of agriculture, that was only recorded by the very first of European Preliminary Initiation Ceremony - Australian Aborigines - Music Of A People: Aboriginal Music Old An.
One early settler named Andrew Todd, C Jam Blues - Duke Ellington - Jump For Joy notes on the life styles of the Wathaurung people that he lived next to in Victoria. He noted that he saw women harvesting Murnong Tubers, a native yam that is now almost extinct. However, the area that they were harvesting from was already cleared of other plants, making it easier to harvest Murnong Tubers exclusively.
Along the northern coast of Australia, parsnip yams were harvested by leaving the bottom part of the yam still stuck in the ground so that I would grow again in the same spot. However, sheep and cattle later brought over by Europeans would ruin this soil by trampling on it. Norman Tindale was able to draw an Aboriginal grain belt, detailing the specific areas where crops were once produced. In terms of aquaculture, explorer Thomas Mitchell noted large stone fish traps on the Darling River at Brewarrina.
Each trap covers a pool, herding fish through a small entrance that would later be shut. Traps were created at different heights to accommodate different water levels during floods and droughts. There is evidence that some Aboriginal populations in northern Australia regularly traded with Makassan fishermen from Indonesia before the arrival of Europeans. At the time of first European contact, it is generally estimated that the pre population was , while recent archaeological finds suggest that a population oftocould have been sustained, with some ecologists estimating that a population of up to a million or even two million people was possible.
Each nation had its own language, and a few had several. All evidence suggests that the section of the Australian continent now occupied by Queensland was the single most densely populated area of pre-contact Australia.
Equally, there are signs that the population density of Indigenous Australia was comparatively higher in the north-eastern Let My People Go - Various - Planète Gospel of New South Wales, and along the northern coast from the Gulf of Carpentaria and westward including certain sections of Northern Territory and Western Australia.
See also Horton's Map of Aboriginal Australia. Settlements were subsequently established in TasmaniaVictoriaQueenslandthe Northern TerritoryWestern Australiaand South Australia Australia was the exception to British imperial colonisation practices, in that no treaty was drawn up setting out terms of agreement between the settlers and native proprietors, as was the case in North America, and New Zealand.
One immediate consequence was a series of epidemics of European diseases such as measlessmallpox and tuberculosis. In the 19th century, smallpox was Say Nope To Dope - Machel* - Breakin Out! principal cause of Aboriginal deaths, and vaccinations of the "native inhabitants" had begun in earnest by the s.
The cause of the outbreak is disputed. Some scholars have attributed it to European settlers,   but it is also argued that Macassan fishermen from South Sulawesi and nearby islands may have introduced smallpox to Australia before the arrival of Europeans. Another consequence of British colonisation was European seizure of land and water resources, with the decimation of kangaroo and other indigenous foodstuffs which continued throughout the 19th and early 20th centuries as rural lands were converted for sheep and cattle grazing.
In there occurred the first recorded use of Aboriginal trackerswho proved very adept at navigating their way through the Australian landscape and finding people. During the s, Tasmanian Aboriginal skulls were particularly sought internationally for studies into craniofacial anthropometry. The skeleton of Truganinia Tasmanian Aboriginal who died inwas exhumed within two years of her death despite her pleas to the contrary by the Royal Society of Tasmaniaand later placed on display.
Campaigns continue to have Aboriginal body parts returned to Australia for burial; Truganini's body was returned in and cremated, and her ashes were scattered according to her wishes.
Ina group of mostly Aboriginal cricketers toured England, becoming the first Australian cricket team to travel overseas.
As part of the colonisation process, there were many small scale conflicts between colonists and Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders across the continent. Since the s there has been more systematic [ vague ] research into this conflict which is described as the Australian frontier wars. In Queensland, the killing of Aboriginal peoples was largely perpetrated by civilian "hunting" parties and the Native Police, armed groups of Aboriginal men who were recruited at gunpoint and led by colonialist to eliminate Aboriginal resistance.
Researchers at the University of Newcastle have begun mapping the massacres. Estimating the total number of deaths during the frontier wars is difficult due to lack of records and the fact that many massacres of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander were kept secret.
After this period of protectionist policies that aimed to segregate and control Aboriginal populations, in the Commonwealth government agreed to move towards assimilation policies.
These policies aimed to integrate Aboriginal persons who were "not of full blood" into the white community in an effort to eliminate the "Aboriginal problem". As part of this, there The Very Very Best - James Yorkston - The Cellardyke Recording And Wassailing Society (Vinyl, LP, LP an increase in the number of children forcibly removed from their homes and placed with white people, either in institutions or foster homes.
During this time, many Aboriginal people were victims of slavery by colonists alongside Pacific Islander peoples who were kidnapped from their homes. Between andunder the guise of protectionist policies, people, including children as young as 12, were forced to work on properties where they worked under horrific conditions and most did not receive any wages.
The Yirrkala Bark petitions were traditional Aboriginal documents to be recognised under Commonwealth law. The Tent Embassy was given heritage status inand celebrated its 40th anniversary in making it the longest, unanswered protest camp in the world. Bythe recorded Indigenous population of Australia had declined to approximately 93, The Indigenous population continued to decline, reaching a low of 74, in before numbers began to recover. Bypopulation numbers had reached pre-colonisation levels, and in there were aroundIndigenous Australians.
Although, as British subjectsall Indigenous Australians were nominally entitled to vote, generally only those who merged into mainstream society did so. Despite the Commonwealth Franchise Actwhich excluded "Aboriginal natives of Australia, Asia, Africa and Pacific Islands except New Zealand" from voting unless they were on the roll beforeSouth Australia insisted that all voters enfranchised within its borders would remain eligible to vote in the Commonwealth, and Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people continued to be added to their rolls, albeit haphazardly.
Despite efforts to bar their enlistment, over 1, Indigenous Australians fought for Australia in the First World War. Dhakiyarr was found to have been wrongly convicted of the murder of Preliminary Initiation Ceremony - Australian Aborigines - Music Of A People: Aboriginal Music Old An white policeman, for which he had been sentenced to death; the case focused national attention on Little Willies Boogie - Little Willie Littlefield - Im In The Mood rights issues.
Dhakiyarr disappeared upon release. The s was a pivotal decade in the assertion of Aboriginal rights and a time of growing collaboration between Aboriginal activists and white Australian activists. This Freedom Ride also aimed to highlight the social discrimination faced by Aboriginal people and encourage Aboriginal people themselves to resist discrimination. The referendum passed with In the controversial Gove land rights caseJustice Blackburn ruled that Australia had been terra nullius before British settlement, and that no concept of native title existed in Australian law.
Following the Woodward commission enquiry, in the Australian federal government under Gough Whitlam enacted the Aboriginal Land Rights Northern Territory Act to recognise Aboriginal Australians' system of Cant You See What You Mean To Me - Jimmy Smith - Second Hand Special rights in the Northern Territory. Inthe High Court of Australia reversed Justice Blackburn's ruling and handed down its decision in the Mabo Casedeclaring the previous legal concept of terra nullius to be invalid and confirming the existence of native title in Australia.
Indigenous Australians began to serve in political office from the s. InSir Douglas Nicholls was appointed as the 28th Governor of South Australia, the first Aboriginal person appointed to vice-regal office. In sport Evonne Goolagong Cawley became the world number-one ranked tennis player in and won 14 Grand Slam Hallelujah - Charlie Parker - Alternate Masters Vol.
2 during her career. In Arthur Beetson became the first Indigenous Australian to captain his country in any sport when he first led the Australian National Rugby League team, the Kangaroos. Intennis player Ashleigh Barty was ranked world number one. Ina group of Pintupi people who were living a traditional hunter-gatherer desert-dwelling life were tracked down in the Gibson Desert in Western Australia and brought in to a settlement.
They are believed to have been the last uncontacted tribe in Australia. Reconciliation between non-Indigenous and Indigenous Australians became a significant issue in Australian politics in the late 20th century. Inthe Council for Aboriginal Reconciliation was established by the federal government to facilitate reconciliation. Ina Constitutional Convention which selected a Republican model for a referendum included just six Indigenous participants, leading Preliminary Initiation Ceremony - Australian Aborigines - Music Of A People: Aboriginal Music Old An delegate Neville Bonner to end his contribution to the Convention with his Jagera tribal "Sorry Chant" in sadness at the low number of Indigenous representatives.
The republican model, as well as a proposal for a new Constitutional preamble which would have included the "honouring" of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people, was put to referendum but did not succeed.
Inthe federal government appointed a panel comprising Indigenous leaders, other legal experts and some members of parliament including Ken Wyatt to provide advice on how best to recognise Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples in the federal Constitution. The panel's recommendations, reported to the federal government in January included deletion of provisions of the Constitution Preliminary Initiation Ceremony - Australian Aborigines - Music Of A People: Aboriginal Music Old An race Section 25 and Section 51 xxviand new provisions on meaningful recognition and further protection from discrimination.
During the same period, the federal government enacted a number of significant, but controversial, policy initiatives in relation to Indigenous Australians.