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The Lockheed F Starfighter is a single-engine, supersonic interceptor aircraft which later became widely used as an attack aircraft. Initially a day fighter, it was developed into an all-weather fighter in The Starfighter - After Hours late s.
One of the Century Series of fighter aircraft, it was operated by the air forces of more than a dozen nations from to The F set numerous world records, including both airspeed and altitude records. Its success was marred by the Lockheed bribery scandalsin which Lockheed had given bribes to a considerable number of political and military figures in various nations to influence their judgment and secure several purchase contracts; this caused considerable The Starfighter - After Hours controversy in Europe and Japan.
The poor safety record of the Starfighter also brought the aircraft into the public eye, especially in German Air Force Luftwaffe service. Fighter ace Erich Hartmann was put into early retirement from the Luftwaffe  due to his outspoken opposition to the selection of the F The final production version of the fighter model was the FSan all-weather interceptor designed by Aeritalia for the Italian Air Forceand equipped with radar-guided AIM-7 Sparrow missiles. An advanced F with a high-mounted wing, known as the CL Lancerwas considered, but did not proceed past the mock-up stage.
Clarence L. The pilots requested a small and simple aircraft with excellent performance, especially high speed and altitude capabilities. The engine chosen was the new General Electric J79 turbojet, an engine of dramatically improved performance in comparison with contemporary designs. Johnson presented the design to the Air Force on 5 Novemberand they were interested enough to create The Starfighter - After Hours general operational requirement for a lightweight fighter to supplement and ultimately replace the yet-to-fly North American F Three additional companies were named finalists for the requirement: Republic Aviation with the AP, an improved version of its prototype XF Thunderceptor ; North American Aviation with the NA, which eventually evolved into the F ; and Northrop Corporation with the N Fanganother Jpowered design.
Although all three finalists' proposals were strong, Lockheed had what proved to be an insurmountable head start, and was granted a development contract on 12 March for The Starfighter - After Hours prototypes ; these were given the designation " XF ". Work progressed quickly, with a mock-up ready for inspection at the end of April,  and work starting on two prototypes that summer. Though development of the F was never a secret, only a vague description of the aircraft was given when the USAF first revealed its existence.
No photos of the airplane were released to the public until I Cried Last Night - Big Joe Louis & His Blues Kings - Big Joe Louis & His Blues Kings, even though the XF first flew in At the April public unveiling of the YFA, the engine inlets were obscured with metal covers and visible weapons, including the M61 Vulcan cannon, were also hidden.
The prototype made a hop into the air during taxi trials on 28 February and flew about five feet 1. On 4 March, Lockheed test pilot Tony LeVier flew the XF for its first official flight; he was airborne for only 21 minutes, much shorter than planned, due Mother Falcon - Alhambra landing gear retraction problems.
Based on the XF testing and evaluations, the next variant, the YFA, was lengthened and fitted with a General Electric J79 engine, modified landing gear, and modified air intakes. The first YFA flew on 17 February and, with the other 16 trial aircraft, were soon carrying out aircraft and equipment evaluation and tests.
Lockheed made several improvements to the aircraft throughout the YFA testing period, including strengthening the airframe, adding a ventral fin to improve directional stability at supersonic speed, and installing a boundary layer control system BLCS to reduce landing speed.
Problems were encountered with the J79 afterburner; further delays were caused by the need to add AIM-9 Sidewinder air-to-air missiles. A total of 2, Fs were produced by Lockheed and under license by various foreign manufacturers. The Starfighter's airframe was all-metal, primarily duralumin with some stainless steel and titanium. The fuselage was approximately two and a half times longer than the airplane's wingspan.
The wings The Starfighter - After Hours were centered on the horizontal reference plane, and were located substantially farther back on the fuselage than most contemporary designs. The aft fuselage Satisfied (Step - 1Dub - The Vocal Up Dub) - Rhona - Satisfied somewhat elevated from the horizontal reference plane, and the nose was "drooped"; this caused the aircraft to assume a slight "nose-up" attitude, which allowed the plane to fly at the minimum-drag angle of attack.
As a result, the pitot tubeair inlet scoops, and engine The Starfighter - After Hours line were all canted slightly with respect to the longitudinal centerline of the fuselage. The F featured a radical wing design. Most jet fighters of the period used a swept-wing or delta-wingwhich provided a reasonable balance between aerodynamic performance, lift, and internal space for fuel and equipment.
The Lockheed tests, however, determined that the most efficient shape for high-speed supersonic flight was a very small, straight, mid-mounted, trapezoidal wing. Much of the data on the wing shape was derived from testing done with the experimental unmanned Lockheed X-7which used a similar-shaped wing. The new wing design was extremely thin, with a thickness-to- chord ratio of only 3. The The Starfighter - After Hourshighly loaded wing resulted in an unacceptably high landing speed, even after adding both leading- and trailing-edge flaps.
Landing without the BLCS engaged was only done in emergencies and could be a harrowing experience, especially at night. The stabilator fully moving horizontal stabilizer was mounted high atop the fin to reduce inertia coupling. Because the vertical fin was only slightly shorter than the length of each wing and nearly as aerodynamically effective, it could act as a wing-on- rudder application, rolling the aircraft in the opposite direction of rudder input.
The fuselage had a high fineness ratioi. The tightly packed fuselage contained the radar, cockpit, cannon, fuel, landing gear, and engine. The fuselage and wing combination provided low drag except at high angle of The Starfighter - After Hours alphaat which point induced drag became very high. The F had good acceleration, rate of climb, and potential top speed, but its sustained turn performance was poor. A "clean" no external weapons or fuel tanks F could sustain a 7- g turn below 5, feet with full afterburner, but given the aircraft's prodigious fuel consumption at that altitude and relatively small fuel capacity, such a maneuver would dramatically reduce its time on station.
This bypass air also helped cool the engine. Available thrust was actually limited by the geometry of the inlet scoop and duct; the aircraft was capable even higher Mach numbers except for the aerodynamic heating limitations of the aluminum structure. The engine consisted of a stage compressor, accessory drive section, annular combustion chamber, three-stage turbine, and afterburner.
The most powerful version of the J79, the JGE, was rated at Bleed air from the compressor's 17th stage was used Out In The Street - Bruce Springsteen And The E Street Band* - New York, March 28, 2016 a number of purposes: the BLCS, cabin pressurization and air conditioning, hot-air jet rain removal, fuel transfer, canopy and windshield defogging and defrosting, pressure for the pilot's anti-G suit, pressurization and cooling of the nose-mounted radar equipment, and purging of gas from the M61 autocannon.
The accessory drive ran two hydraulic pumps, two variable-frequency generators, the generator for the tachometer, and pumps for engine fuel and oil. As the first aircraft to carry the weapon, testing of the Starfighter revealed issues with the initial version of the M the Gatling -mechanism cannon suffered problems with its linked ammunitionbeing prone to misfeed and presenting a foreign object damage FOD hazard with discarded links.
A linkless ammunition feed system was developed for the upgraded M61A1 installed in the FC; the M61A1 has subsequently been used by a wide variety of American combat aircraft. The cannon, mounted in the lower part of the port fuselage, was fed by a round drum behind the pilot's seat. With its firing rate of 6, rounds per minute, the cannon would empty the drum after just over seven seconds of continuous fire.
Two AIM-9 Sidewinder air-to-air missiles could be carried on the wingtip stations, which could also be used for fuel tanks. The FC and later models added a centerline pylon and two underwing pylons for bombs, rocket pods, or fuel tanks; the centerline pylon could carry a nuclear weapon.
The FS models added a pair of fuselage pylons beneath the intakes available for conventional bomb carriage and an additional pylon under each wing, for a total of nine.
Early Starfighters were also capable of carrying The Starfighter - After Hours launching a single MB-1 AIR-2A Genie rocket-powered nuclear missile using an extending trapeze launcher. This configuration was tested on a single aircraft but was not adopted for service use; however, NASA later used it for launching test rockets.
The radar also had a third, receive-only mode useful for locking onto source of interference from electronic countermeasures ECM. Early Starfighters used a downward-firing ejection seat the Stanley C-1out of concern over the ability of an upward-firing seat to clear the "T-tail" empennage. The Starfighter was designed for production rates of up to 20 airplanes per day from a single assembly line. The entire aircraft was designed for modular assembly and disassembly: the two principal fuselage sections were split along the vertical centerline and completely The Starfighter - After Hours in two The Starfighter - After Hours halves; all equipment, including wiring and plumbing, were installed inside the two-halves before being joined together.
The wings were then attached with only ten bolts plus a fairing. Although the F was designed as an air-superiority fighter, the United States Air Force's immediate need at the time was for a supersonic interceptor.
In the late s, the United States government believed The Starfighter - After Hours was significantly behind the USSR Plastic Man - Sonny & Cher - Good Times (Original Movie Soundtrack) terms of the size of its jet-powered bomber fleet.
The Starfighter's speed and rate-of-climb performance intrigued the Air Force, who pressed the FA into service as an interim interceptor with the Air Defense Command ADCeven though its range and armament were not well-suited for the role. The newly operational aircraft experienced problems with both the J79 engine and M61 cannon, and after just three months of service, the unit was grounded after a series of engine-related accidents.
During this time, the Air Force's interest in the Starfighter was waning due to a shift in strategy toward fighters with longer range and heavier ordnance loads. In Augustonly a few months after establishing operational readiness with the F, the 83rd FIS was assigned to a peacekeeping mission in Taiwan after the People's Republic of China began an intense artillery campaign against the Nationalist Chinese on the disputed islands of Quemoy and Matsu.
Tensions between the two forces were already high; artillery duels were ongoing since the first crisis inand the PLAAF had recently relocated MiGs and MiGs to airfields on the mainland opposite Taiwan. The Starfighters' presence, according to Col. This was the first time that air transport was used to move fighter aircraft long distances. Within 30 hours of arriving, 1Lt Crosley J.
Fitton had the first of the 83rd's airplanes in the air, and by 19 September the entire unit was ready for day or night alert status. Kennedy orderedUnited States National Guard and reserve personnel to active duty on 30 Augustin response to Soviet moves to cut off Allied access to Berlin.
In late October and early November, eight of the tactical fighter units flew to Europe with their aircraft in Late2nite (Tomcraft & Eniac Rmx) - Little Witches - Late2nite Stair Step". As with the Taiwan crisis three years earlier, the Starfighter did not directly engage any enemy fighters, but its presence provided a powerful air-superiority deterrent; it demonstrated very quick reaction times and exemplary The Starfighter - After Hours during practice intercepts, and proved superior to all other available fighters in the theater.
Although not an optimum platform for the theater, the F did see limited service in the Vietnam War. Starfighter squadrons The Starfighter - After Hours two deployments to Vietnam. Commencing with Operation Rolling The Starfighter - After Hours the Starfighter was used both in the air-superiority role and in the air-support mission.
Twenty-five MiG kills were scored by fighters controlled by EC Big Eye missions, and their Starfighter escorts played a vital role in ensuring their safety. During the first F deployment from April to DecemberStarfighters flew a total of 2, combat sorties.
These sorties resulted in the loss of five aircraft, one from the th TFS deployed from April to July and four from the th Tactical Fighter Squadron deployed from July to October Philip E. Smith strayed into Chinese airspaceand two were lost to a mid-air collision while searching for Smith's missing jet.
Starfighters returned to Vietnam when the th Tactical Fighter Squadron re-deployed from June until August The U. Air Force was less than satisfied with the Starfighter, and procured only examples in single-seat and two-seat versions. At the time, USAF doctrine placed little importance on air superiority fighter-to-fighterand the Starfighter was deemed inadequate for either the interceptor fighter-to-bomber or tactical fighter-bomber role, lacking both payload capability and endurance in comparison with other USAF aircraft.
The F's U. The last use of the F Starfighter in U. They continued in use until Fs were The Starfighter - After Hours to intercept the Gnat flying over Pakistan, which was returning to its home base. The Fs, closing in at supersonic speed, caused the Gnat pilot to land at a nearby disused Pakistani airfield and surrender. The IAF disputed the PAF's claim of forced landing and stated that the landing was an error of the pilot, who made an emergency landing thinking it to be an Indian airstrip.
The first direct air-to-air combat engagements between the F and the MiG took place during the Indo-Pakistani War of Post-war sanctions forced an early retirement of Fs from the PAF due to lack of maintenance support.
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