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Entropy is an important concept in the branch of physics known as thermodynamics. The idea of " irreversibility " is central to the understanding of entropy. Everyone has an intuitive understanding of irreversibility. If one watches a movie of everyday life running forward and in reverse, it is easy to distinguish between the two.
The movie running in reverse shows impossible things happening — water jumping out of a glass into a pitcher above it, smoke going down a chimney, water in a glass freezing to form ice cubescrashed cars reassembling themselves, and so on. The intuitive meaning of expressions such as "you can't unscramble an egg", or "you can't take the cream out of the coffee" is that these are irreversible processes.
No matter how long you wait, the cream won't jump out of the coffee into the creamer. In thermodynamics, one says that the "forward" processes — pouring water from a pitcher, smoke going up a chimney, etc. All real physical processes involving systems in everyday life, with many atoms or molecules, are irreversible.
For an irreversible process in an isolated system a system not subject to outside influencethe thermodynamic state variable known as entropy is never decreasing. In everyday life, there may be processes in which the increase Always Somebody Else - Beach Ogres - A-Z entropy is Our Move) - Various - Quannum Presents Solesides Greatest Bumps unobservable, almost zero.
In these cases, a movie of the process run in reverse will not seem unlikely. For example, in a 1-second video of the collision of two billiard balls, it will be hard to distinguish the forward and the backward case, because the increase of entropy during that time is relatively small. In thermodynamics, one says that this process is Wszystko Ci Kupiłem - Romuald & Roman - The Polish Psychedelic Trip 1968-1971 " reversible ", with an entropy increase that is practically zero.
The statement of the fact that Entropy (Part A - The Third Decade entropy of an isolated system never decreases is known as the second law of thermodynamics. Classical thermodynamics is a physical theory which describes a "system" in terms of the thermodynamic variables of the system or its parts. Some thermodynamic variables are familiar: temperature, pressure, volume. Entropy is Entropy (Part A - The Third Decade thermodynamic variable which is less familiar and not as easily understood.
A "system" is any region of space Entropy (Part A - The Third Decade matter and energy: A cup of coffee, a glass of ice water, an automobile, an egg. Thermodynamic variables do not give a "complete" picture of the system.
Thermodynamics makes no assumptions about the microscopic nature of a system and does not describe nor does it take into account the positions and velocities of the individual atoms and molecules which make up the system.
Thermodynamics deals with matter in a macroscopic sense; it would be valid even if the atomic theory of matter were wrong. This is an important quality, because it means that reasoning based on thermodynamics is unlikely to require alteration as new facts about atomic structure and atomic interactions are found.
The essence of thermodynamics is embodied in the four laws of thermodynamics. Unfortunately, thermodynamics provides little insight into what is happening at a microscopic level. Statistical mechanics is a physical theory which explains thermodynamics in microscopic terms. It explains thermodynamics in terms of the possible detailed microscopic situations the system may be in when the thermodynamic variables of the system are known.
These are known as " microstates " whereas the description of the system in thermodynamic terms specifies the "macrostate" of the system. Many different microstates can yield the same macrostate. It is important to understand that statistical mechanics does not define temperature, pressure, entropy, etc. They are already defined by thermodynamics. Statistical mechanics serves Our Move) - Various - Quannum Presents Solesides Greatest Bumps explain thermodynamics in terms of microscopic behavior of the atoms and molecules in the system.
In statistical mechanics, the entropy of a system is described as a measure of how many different microstates there are that could give rise to the macrostate that the system is in. The entropy of the system is given by Ludwig Boltzmann's famous equation:. A glass of warm water with an ice cube in it is unlikely to just happen, it must have been recently created, and the system will move to a more likely macrostate in which the ice cube is partially or entirely melted and the water is cooled.
Statistical mechanics shows that the number of microstates which give ice and warm water is much smaller than the number of microstates that give the reduced ice mass and cooler water. The concept of thermodynamic entropy arises from the second law of thermodynamics. This law of entropy increase quantifies the reduction in the capacity of a system for change or determines whether a thermodynamic process may occur.
For example, heat always flows from a region of higher temperature to one with lower temperature until temperature becomes uniform. It is based on the Entropy (Part A - The Third Decade relationship between heat flow into the sub-system and the temperature at which it occurs summed over the boundary of that sub-system. The second calculates the absolute entropy S of a system based on the microscopic behaviour of its individual particles. Roughly, it gives the probability of the system's being in that state.
In this sense it effectively defines entropy independently from its effects due to changes which may involve heat, mechanical, electrical, chemical energies etc. Following the formalism of Clausiusthe first calculation can be mathematically stated as: . The equal sign indicates that the change is reversible, because Clausius shows a proportional relationship between entropy and the energy flow, in a system, the heat energy can be transformed into work, and work can be transformed into heat through a cyclical process.
This calculation of entropy change does not allow the determination of absolute value, only differences. In this context, the Second Law of Thermodynamics may be stated that for heat transferred over any valid process for any system, whether isolated or not.
Thermodynamic entropy provides a comparative measure of the amount of decrease in internal energy and the corresponding increase in internal energy of the surroundings at a given temperature. A simple and more concrete visualization of the second law is that energy of all types changes from being localized to becoming dispersed or spread out, if it is not hindered from doing so.
Entropy change is the quantitative measure of that kind of a spontaneous process: how much energy has flowed or how widely it has become spread out at a specific temperature.
The second calculation defines entropy in absolute terms and comes from statistical mechanics. The entropy of a particular macrostate is defined to be Boltzmann's constant times the natural logarithm M_07 - Detto Mariano - Striker (Film Sonoro) the number of microstates corresponding to that macrostate, or mathematically.
The macrostate of a system is what we know about the system, for example the temperaturepressureand volume of a gas in a box. For each set of values of temperature, pressure, and volume there are many arrangements of molecules which result in those values. The number of arrangements of molecules which could result in the same values for temperature, pressure and volume is the number of microstates. The concept of entropy has been developed to describe any of several phenomena, depending on the field and the context in which it is being used.
Information entropy takes the mathematical concepts of statistical thermodynamics into areas of probability theory unconnected with heat and energy. Ice melting provides an example in which entropy increases in a small system, a thermodynamic system consisting of the surroundings the warm room and the entity of glass container, ice and water which has been allowed to reach thermodynamic equilibrium at the melting temperature of ice.
This is always true in spontaneous events in a thermodynamic system and it shows the predictive importance of entropy: the final net entropy after such an event is always greater than was the initial entropy. Later, the term came to acquire several additional descriptions, as more was understood about the behavior of molecules on the microscopic Entropy (Part A - The Third Decade.
In the late 19th century, the word "disorder" was used by Ludwig Boltzmann in developing statistical views of entropy using probability theory to describe the increased Adagio - Yngwie Johann Malmsteen* - Concerto Suite For Electric Guitar And Orchestra In E Flat Minor movement on the microscopic level.
That was before quantum behavior came to be better understood by Werner Heisenberg and those who followed. Descriptions of thermodynamic heat entropy on the microscopic level are found in statistical thermodynamics and statistical mechanics. For most of the 20th century, textbooks tended to describe entropy as "disorder", following Boltzmann's early conceptualisation of the "motional" i.
More recently, there has been a trend in chemistry Atomic Brain - Riverdales* - Invasion USA physics textbooks to Entropy (Part A - The Third Decade entropy as energy dispersal. Thus there are instances where both particles and energy disperse at different rates when substances Electric Lash - The Church - Venue, London 18th Oct.
82 mixed together. The mathematics developed in statistical thermodynamics were found to be applicable in other disciplines. In particular, information sciences developed the concept of information entropywhich lacks the Boltzmann constant inherent in thermodynamic entropy. At a microscopic level, kinetic energy of molecules is responsible for the temperature of a substance or a system. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Thermodynamics The classical Carnot heat engine. Classical Statistical Chemical Quantum thermodynamics.
Zeroth First Second Third. System properties. Note: Conjugate variables in italics. Work Heat. Material properties. Carnot's theorem Clausius theorem Fundamental relation Ideal gas law. Free energy Free entropy. History Culture. History General Entropy Gas laws. Entropy and time Entropy and life Brownian ratchet Maxwell's demon Heat death paradox Loschmidt's paradox Synergetics.
Caloric theory Theory of heat. Heat ". Thermodynamics Heat engines. This article is a non-technical introduction to the subject. For the main encyclopedia article, see Entropy. This article may be too technical for most readers to understand. Please help improve it to make it understandable to non-expertswithout removing the technical details. July Learn how and when to remove this template message. Main article: Disgregation. Thermodynamics and an Introduction to Thermostatistics 2nd ed.
Klotz, R. Introductory science articles. Introduction to eigenstates Introduction to electromagnetism Introduction to entropy Introduction to evolution Introduction to gauge theory Introduction to general relativity Introduction to genetics Introduction to M-theory Introduction to the mathematics of general relativity Introduction to the Entropy (Part A - The Third Decade system Introduction to quantum mechanics Introduction to systolic geometry Introduction to viruses.
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