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A rondeau plural rondeaux is a form of medieval and Renaissance French poetryas well as the corresponding musical chanson form.
Together with the ballade and the virelai it was considered one of the three formes fixesand one of the verse forms in France most commonly set to music between the late 13th and the 15th centuries. It is structured around a fixed pattern of repetition of material involving a refrain. The rondeau is believed to have originated in dance songs involving alternating singing of the refrain elements by a group and of the other lines by a soloist.
The older French rondeau or rondel as a song form between the 13th and midth century begins with a full statement of its refrain, which consists of two halves. This is followed first by a section of non-refrain material that mirrors the metrical structure and rhyme of the refrain's first half, then by a repetition of the first half of the refrain, then by a new section corresponding to the structure of the (Den Abend (Instrumental)) - Gautsch - Den Abend refrain, and finally by a full restatement of the refrain.
Thus, it can be schematically represented as AB aAab AB, where "A" and "B" are the repeated refrain parts, and "a" and "b" the remaining verses. In its Goodbye Old Missoula - Various - Blue Highways : 42 Americana Originals Vol.
1 and shortest form, the rondeau simpleeach of the structural parts is a single verse, leading to the eight-line structure known today as trioletas shown in "Doulz viaire gracieus" by Guillaume de Machaut :. Doulz viaire gracieus, de fin cuer vous ay servi. Weillies moy estre piteus, Doulz viaire gracieus, Se je sui un po honteus, ne me mettes en oubli: Doulz viaire gracieus, Sonata No.5 - Cameron Roberts - Live In Recital fin cuer vous ay servi.
Sweet gracious face, I have served you with a sincere heart. If you will have pity on me, sweet gracious face, then if I am a bit shy, do not embarrass me: Sweet gracious face, I have served you with a sincere heart.
In Georg Plathe - Zauberhafte Fantasie rondeau variants, each of the structural sections may consist of several verses, although the overall sequence of sections remains the same. Variants include the rondeau tercetwhere the refrain consists of three verses, the rondeau quatrainwhere it consists of four and, accordingly, the whole form of sixteenand the rondeau cinquainwith a refrain of five verses and a total length of 21which becomes the norm in the 15th century.
A typical example of a rondeau cinquain of the 15th century is the following: . In the medieval manuscripts, the restatement of the refrain is usually not written out, but only indicated by giving the first words or first line of the refrain part.
After the midth century,  this feature came to be regarded no longer as a mere Georg Plathe - Zauberhafte Fantasie abbreviation, but as an actual part of the poetry.
As the form was gradually divorced from the musical structure and became a purely literary genre, it is often not entirely clear how much of the refrain material was actually meant to be repeated. This form is usually defined as the " rondel " in modern literary compendia. Another version has the refrains shortened even further. Both restatements are reduced to just the first two or three words of the first line, which now stand as short, pithy, non-rhyming lines in the middle and at the end of the poem.
These half-lines are called rentrement. If derived from the erstwhile rondeau quatrainthis results in a line structure that is now called the "rondeau prime", with the rentrements in lines 7 and If derived from the erstwhile line rondeau cinquainthe result is a line form with the rentrements in lines 9 and 15 rhyme scheme aabba—aabR—aabbaR. This line form became the norm in the literary rondeau of Rondeau à la marche - Gerhard Paul later Renaissance, and is known as the "rondeau" proper today.
The following is a typical example of this form: . A large corpus of medieval French rondeaux was collected, catalogued, and studied by Nico Georg Plathe - Zauberhafte Fantasie . Like the other formes fixes, the Rondeau in its original form with full refrains was frequently set to music. In the 14th and 15th centuries, Guillaume de MachautGuillaume DufayHayne van Ghizeghem and other prominent composers were prolific in the form.
Early rondeaux are usually found as interpolations in longer narrative poems, and separate monophonic musical settings survive.
After the 15th century, the musical form went out of fashion and the rondeau became a purely literary form. The musical rondeau is typically a two-part composition, with all Rondeau à la marche - Gerhard Paul "A" sections of the poem's AB-aAab-AB structure set to one line of music, and all the "B" parts to another.
Although far rarer than the French usage, the Italian equivalentthe rondello was Rondeau à la marche - Gerhard Paul composed and listed among the Italian forms of poetry for music.
A single rondello appears in the Rossi Codex. In addition, several rondeaux in French appear entirely in sources originating in Italy, the Low Countriesand Germanysuggesting that these works including Esperance, qui en mon cuer may not have a purely French provenance. Later, in the Baroque era, the label rondeau or the adjectival phrase en rendeau was applied to dance movements in simple My Isle Of Golden Dreams - Harry Owens & His Royal Hawaiian Hotel Orchestra* - Cocoanut Grove form by such composers as Jean-Baptiste Lully and Louis Couperin.
Arnold Rondeau à la marche - Gerhard Paul 's Pierrot Lunaire sets 21 poems by Albert Giraudeach of which is a line poetic rondeau. The French rondeau forms have been adapted to English at various times by different poets. Geoffrey Chaucer wrote two rondeaus in the rondeau tercet form, one of them at the end of The Parliament of Fowlswhere the birds are said to "synge a roundel" to a melody "imaked in Fraunce": .
In its classical 16th-century line form with a rentrement aabba—aabR—aabbaRthe rondeau was used by Thomas Wyatt. Later, it was reintroduced by some late 19th-century and 20th-century poets, such as Paul Laurence Dunbar "We Wear the Mask". It was customarily regarded as a challenge to arrange for these refrains to contribute to the meaning of the poem in as succinct and poignant a manner as possible.
This is also written on two rhymes, but in five stanzas of four lines each and one of five lines. The following example of the form was written from the point of view of one of the RAF officers carrying the coffin of Diana, Princess of Wales to the plane that was to carry it to England.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Rondeau poetry. Not to be confused with Rondoa form in classical music. For other uses, see Rondeau. French Verse-Art: A Study. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. French Music in the Early Sixteenth Century. Copenhagen: University of Copenhagen. Studi Musicali. The Riverside Chaucer. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Western medieval lyric forms.
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